Finally, the political aspect of reparations is wrapped in the clothes of the American political reality. There are those who will immediately say that the people of the United States will never accede to reparations. Some compare it to the movement against globalization, and to be sure, they have much in common. It is my belief as well as that of others that the underlying fault in the American body politic is the unresolved issue of enslavement. The spine slants slightly to the right. Du Bois in his 1920 book Darkwater.
We expect all of the arguments for reparations to be used in such cases. While the argument for reparations is a Pan-African one, we are most interested in this essay with the discourse surrounding the enslavement and its consequences in the American society. This is why the recent rewarding of reparations to Jews for the Nazi atrocities is considered normal and natural. To speak of aneconomic interest in the argument is typically American and an issue that should be well understood by most Americans. Therefore, the use of legal strategy in securing reparations is not only expected but required by Africans receiving compensatory redress for their enslavement. I appreciate the informative nature of the book.
Yaa Asantewa Nzingha is a former Brooklyn teacher fired for teaching that Black students should refer to themselves as Africans rather than Americans. It is also important to note that while many view reparations as a radical solution to alleviate a historic wrong, conservative heads of state—President Ronald Reagan, for example—have endorsed them for victims of crimes against humanity. What makes the book outstanding, however, is the clarity in which Winbush crafted his recognition of previously understood factors. Only in societies where human beings are considered less than humans do we have the opportunity for enslavement, concentration camps, and gas chambers. The figure has reached as high as 100 million in the estimation of some scholars, such as W. Reparations had never been a passion of mine.
Death came to the enslaved in vile, crude ways when the angry, psychopathic slave owner wanted to teach other enslaved Africans a lesson. These groups faced the same challenge during early 1995 when Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam began organizing the Million Man March that took place in October of that year. When one examines the nature of the terms amassed for the argument for reparations it becomes clear that the basis for them is interwoven with the cultural fabric of the American nation. We cannot adequately account for these lost numbers, which include those who died resisting capture in Africa, those who died on the forced marches to the beach barracoons, those who died awaiting to enter the ships, those who died aboard ships, and those who continued to resist throughout 250 years of enslavement. Most of the Africans who were robbed from the continent of Africa were between the ages of fifteen and twenty years—robbery of prime youth.
Clearly, the ideas of justice and fair play, while often thwarted, distorted, and subverted, characterize the legal ideal in American jurisprudence. . They too provide prescriptions through reparations for fixing these massive problems. We have no example of a slave economy in West Africa. In the first place, Africans often lost their freedom because of their age. The issue of land takings from African Americans is the greatest unpunished crime in United States history and will form the basis for many lawsuits involving reparations.
The European slave trade was not an African venture, it was preeminently a European enterprise in all of its dimensions: conception, insurance, outfitting of ships, sailors, factories, shackles, weapons, and the selling and buying of people in the Americas. The recognition of reparations in numerous other cases, including the Rosewood, Florida, and the Tulsa, Oklahoma, burning and bombing of African American communities in the early 1920s, means that we must continue to right the wrongs of the past, so that our current relationships as citizens will improve through an appreciation of justice. Pro-reparations essays, including contributions by Congressman John Conyers Jr. Thirdly, one has to consider the loss in transit that derived from coffles and the long marches, the dreaded factories where Africans were held sometimes as long as seven months while the Europeans waited for a transport ship, and the severe loss of life in transit, where death on board the ships or in the sea further deprived a people. We grade conservatively, package securely and ship immediately.
The economic base of racism. But others ask, Who should pay? This comprehensive collection presents powerful, cogent material on all aspects of the reparations issue. And could reparations help heal the wounds of the past? However, from the middle of the seventeenth century to 1865, only Africans were enslaved as a matter of race and ethnic origin. However, for purposes of reparations the numbers are not necessary since there can be no adequate compensation for the enslavement and its consequences. It seems to me that loss must be determined using a multiplicity of measures suited to the variety of deprivations that were experienced by the African people.
The highest form of law exhibits itself when a system of law is able to answer for its own crimes. He also stated in his Appeal that the White Christian Americans were the most cruel and barbarous people who have ever lived. The Grounds of the Argument: Moral, Legal, Economic, and Political The argument for reparations for the forced enslavement of Africans in the American colonies and the United States of America is based in moral, legal, economic, and political grounds. One assumes that morality based in the relationship between humans and the divine provides an incentive for correcting a wrong, if it is perceived to be a wrong, in most cases. This comprehensive collection -- the only of its kind -- gathers together the seminal essays and key participants in the debate. Not one African can be named as an equal partner with Europeans in the slave trade.