Highly arousing rituals, because they are causally opaque, can generate prolonged processes of reflection and meaning-making, contributing to the elaboration of both personal and group identities Richert et al. This is not a simple task, however. Previous theories of extreme self-sacrifice have highlighted a range of seemingly disparate factors such as collective identity, outgroup hostility, and kin psychology. He is William Rand Kenan Jr. A Reductionistic Model of Distinct Modes of Religious Transmission 2. Reviews This book provides an excellent set of commentaries, and for those interested in cognitive approaches to religion more generally, it offers a good overview. The Modes Theory Helps Explain Conversion Phenomena 9.
Thomas Lawson, of Rethinking Religion: Connecting Cognition and Culture 1990 and Bringing Ritual to Mind: Psychological Foundations of Cultural Forms 2002. Memory and Analogical Thinking in High-Arousal Rituals Part Three: Wider Applications 8. The result is an up-to-date snapshot of the cognitive science of religion field for classes in psychology, anthropology, or history of religion. The result is an up-to-date snapshot of the cognitive science of religion field for classes in psychology, anthropology, or history of religion. He has taught courses at Emory University in all of those fields as well as in linguistics and neuroscience and behavioral biology.
Explaining extreme self-sacrifice is not only a scientific priority but also a practical challenge as we seek a collective response to suicide terrorism and other extreme expressions of outgroup hostility that continue to bedevil humanity today. Thomas Lawson, of Rethinking Religion: Connecting Cognition and Culture 1990 and Bringing Ritual to Mind: Psychological Foundations of Cultural Forms 2002. Die Grundlagen seiner Theorie der Modes of Religiosity entwickelte er bereits in zwei vorangegangenen Publikationen. In addition to experiments using made-up rituals, studies of real world rituals suggest that the more frightening or painful the ritual experience the more exegetical reflection it provokes e. Aspects of the Sunday service that members perceived as most important, both for creating a sense of community and for friendship formation, were the informal socialising and cooperating that occurs before and after the service itself. The fusion mechanism has often been exploited in cultural rituals, not only by tribal societies but also in specialized cells embedded in armies, cults, and terrorist organizations.
McCauley served as president of the Society for Philosophy and Psychology 1997-98 and as the president of the International Association for the Cognitive Science of Religion 2010-2012 and is slated to be a Gifford Lecturer at the University of Aberdeen in 2021. Table of Contents Introduction Part One: The Theoretical Context 1. Those experiencing the ritual as frightening scored significantly higher on the meaning-making measures, suggesting that dysphoric intensity is linked to spontaneous reflection on the symbolism of ritual actions. Whether upheld as heroic or reviled as terrorism, throughout history people have been willing to lay down their lives for the sake of their groups. University Professor of Philosophy and was the inaugural Director of the Center for Mind, Brain, and Culture at Emory University 2008-2016. The result is an up-to-date snapshot of the cognitive science of religion field for classes in psychology, anthropology, or history of religion. Religiosity appears to benefit wellbeing, potentially due to social support offered by religious communities.
He is the author, with E. Modes Theory: Some Theoretical Considerations 3. Ritual Form and Ritual Frequency 4. He is the author, with E. Secular congregations may be a viable alternative for non-religious people and perhaps especially men who seek the health benefits that religious communities have traditionally offered. McCauley is Professor of Philosophy at Emory University in Atlanta. McCauley has lectured at colleges and universities as well as national and international conferences and professional meetings in more than a dozen countries across four continents.
Rethinking Naturalness: Modes of Religiosity and Religion in the Round Part Two: Testing the Modes Theory 6. In ancient foraging societies, fusion would have enabled warlike bands to stand united despite strong temptations to scatter and flee. Initiations, for example, are explicitly designed to transform novices permanently, often by putting them through shared traumatic ordeals that are never-to-be-forgotten and rich with symbolism and semantic connotations Barth 1987;Whitehouse 1996. Recent cognitive approaches to the study of religion have yielded much understanding by focusing on common psychological processes that all humans share. Recent cognitive approaches to the study of religion have yielded much understanding by focusing on common psychological processes that all humans share. Divergent Religion: A Dual-Process Model of Religious Thought, Behavior, and Structure 5. .
Thomas Lawson of both Bringing Ritual to Mind: Psychological Foundations of Cultural Forms and Rethinking Religion: Connecting Cognition and Culture. You should start right now! In the Empirical Mode: Evidence Needed for the Modes of Religiosity 7. One leading theory, Harvey WhitehouseOs modes of religiosity theory, demonstrates how two distinct modes of organizing and transmitting religious traditions emerge from different ways of activating universal memory systems. In addition, he is the author of more than 100 articles, chapters, and reviews in a variety of journals in philosophy, religion, anthropology, psychology, and cognitive science. Part of the answer is that religion is not as variable as all that: much of what we have learned from ethnography, historiography, and archaeology for instance points to a massive amount of cross-cultural recurrence not only in the forms that religious systems take but even in relation to some aspects of doctrinal content.
In the cognitive science of religion, the challenge confronting us is to show that significant features of the content, organization, and spread of religious phenomena can be explained in terms of the ways in which panhuman, evolved psychological mechanisms are activated. Why Religions Develop Free Will Problems 11. Some emotionally intense experiences take the form of collective rituals, orchestrated in culturally prescribed ways Kavanagh et al. Charisma, Tradition and Ritual: A Cognitive Approach to Magical Agency 10. This paper attempts to integrate many of these factors into a single overarching theory based on several decades of collaborative research with a range of special populations, from tribes in Papua New Guinea to Libyan insurgents, and from Muslim fundamentalists in Indonesia to Brazilian football hooligans.
The Cognitive Foundations of Religiosity. Der Kulturanthropologe Harvey Whitehouse erarbeitet in seinem Buch Modes of Religiosity eine kognitionswissenschaftlich orientierte Religionstheorie, in welcher er zwei divergierende Tradierungsformen religiöser Praxis skizziert, die er mit den mentalen Funktionsweisen bestimmter Gedächtnisfunktionen in Verbindung setzt. McCauley is Professor of Philosophy at Emory University in Atlanta. To address this problem, we investigated whether these benefits could also be obtained from membership in a secular, quasi-religious community. In Mind and Religion, top scholars from biology to religious studies question, test, evaluate and challenge WhitehouseOs sweeping thesis. According to the cover story, anthropologists were seeking to puzzle together the long-forgotten meanings of the ritual acts and artefacts and were eager to learn from the impressions and interpretations of participants in the reconstruction.