With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells. All authors contributed to discussing the results and writing and reviewing the manuscript. Thin Solid Films 535, 10—13 2013. Annealing of thin films lowers the defect content, increases crystallite size, and induces recrystallization, which can improve the power efficiency of solar cells. Common phases include ZnS, SnS, CuS, and Cu 2SnS 3. The effect of strain distribution on abnormal grain growth in Cu thin films. This book will aid materials scientists and engineers in identifying research priorities to fulfill energy needs, and will also enable researchers to understand novel semiconductor materials that are emerging in the solar market.
In 2013 Rajeshmon et al. The reflections could also be indexed as 112, 200, 220, 312 and 332. The film annealed for 75 min shows the non-uniform texture, with some voids or cavities. Generally, annealing for an extended period assists the diffusion of each element and leads to the formation of homogeneous films. Category: Science Author : M.
In this final report highlights of the first three quarters will be provided and details will be given of the final quarter of the subcontract. Thin Solid Films 517, 2511—2514 2009. Synthesis and characterization of co-electroplated Cu 2ZnSnS 4 thin films as potential photovoltaic material. As the annealing time increased up to 120 min, the film surface became more compact with large densely packed grains. Scragg Number Of Pages 204 pages Series Springer Theses Format Hardcover Publication Date 2011-09-02 Language English Publisher Springer Publication Year 2011 Additional Details Number of Volumes 1 vol. . These methods include radio-frequency magnetron sputtering deposition, screen printing, co-sputtering, photochemical deposition, sol—gel deposition, spray pyrolysis deposition, pulsed laser deposition, thermal evaporation, paste-based methods, and electrodeposition.
A total of 20 mg Sulfur was evaporated from pellets 99. Phase equilibria in the Cu-Se system. Despite continued rapid cost reduction, concerns about material price and availability as well as toxicity have been raised. Structural determination via techniques like is hindered by disorder of the Cu-Zn cations, which are the most common defect as predicted by theoretical calculations and confirmed by neutron scattering. The result is an expert insight the central questions surrounding photovoltaic materials and systems, reflecting the latest developments in this hot and timely green topic. This low carrier lifetime may be due to high density of active defects or recombination at grain boundaries.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Electrodeposition of tin needle-like structures. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. From optical study, energy gap was enlarged with a changed sulfurization times in the range of 1. Thin Solid Films 534, 144—148 2013. First-principle calculations show that the crystal energy is only 2.
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Thin Films for Photovoltaics: Synthesis and Characterisation by Electrochemical Methods. Advances in materials research have been the basis for much of this progress - resulting in reduced costs and improved conversion efficiencies and reliabilities for solar systems. Before annealing, a drying step is carried out at 200—300 °C to maximize solvent evaporation. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. However, some reports indicate that intermediates like binary sulfide of the constituent elements, bimetallic alloys or ternary Cu xSnS y can form at these temperatures. The possibility of fabricating these devices using low-cost and scalable electroplating is demonstrated.
Extremely flat surfaces by liquid phase epitaxy. The reduction potentials of the Cu, Sn and Zn ions are shown in. Journal of Solid State Chemistry. The logically organized and carefully selected articles give insight into materials challenges in alternative renewable energy and incorporate the latest developments related to materials challenges in alternative renewable energy, including hydrogen, batteries and energy storage materials, hydropower, and biomass. The authors also explain how the photo-generated currents can be enhanced using multi-step charge carrier production. Electrical and optical properties of stannite-type quaternary semiconductor thin films.
A continuous flow process using ethylene glycol as a solvent has been developed at Oregon State University which may be suitable for industrial scale mass production. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. Category: Science Author : A. Each of the first three quarters of the subcontract has been detailed in quarterly reports. Category: Science Author : Richard C. Structural and optical properties of Cu 2ZnSnS 4 thin film absorbers from ZnS and Cu 3SnS 4 nanoparticle precursors. Topics include: silicon solar cells and devices; thin-film polycrystalline materials and devices; characterization and new technologies.