Carbohydrates - Classification aldoses and ketoses , monosaccahrides glucose and fructose , D-L configuration oligosaccharides sucrose, lactose, maltose , polysaccharides starch, cellulose, glycogen ; Importance of carbohydrates. The elements present in this group are Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Arsenic, Antimony, Bismuth. Sulphur S In free states sulphur occurs in the volcanic regions. Kindly share Chemistry notes for class 12 pdf download with your friends. The course also wraps in itself our experience in successfully training thousands of students in classrooms over a decade. Stability: The stability of hydrides decreases down the group due to decrease in bond dissociation energy down the group.
Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines. These notes will certainly save your time during stressful exam days. Our experts in Chemistry some of the best teachers out there have put together a comprehensive collection of Chemistry Notes for Class 12. It is stored in water to protect from air. Cancer has been treated by the use of Cobalt — 60 a radioactive element in radiotherapy.
Our free reference resources include Interactive Simulations Enhancing Visual Understanding , Concept Maps , Previous Years Solved Papers Upto 12 Years. Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogeneous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions. Dinitrogen, N 2 Preparation: N 2 is produced commercially by the liquifaction of air followed by fractional distillation. It is also used in medicine, galvanizing, preparation of H 2 and as a laboratory reagent. The stability of +5 oxidation state decreases whereas stability of +3 oxidation state increases due to inert pair effect.
Now the registration process is likely to begin on the first May 2019. It exhibits only in -1 oxidation state. It is formed in atmosphere naturally through photochemical reaction. Oxygen is most abundant element. Group 17 Elements The elements of group 17 are found only in the combined state and are highly reactive.
Ans: Due to gradual increase in atomic size. We have been catering to different educational streams for quite a while now. Vitamins — Classification and functions. Cleansing agents - soaps and detergents, cleansing action. It gets hydrolysed in the presence of moisture. Proteins -Elementary idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures qualitative idea only , denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Account for the following: Group 15 elements i There is a considerable increase in covalent radius from N to P. Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties of primary alcohols only , identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol. F and Cl are in gaseous state while Br is liquid and I is in solid state at normal temperature. Chemicals in food - preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants. While Sb and Bi forms oxide and nitrate respectively. It is odourless, colourless, tasteless, chemically inert and non toxic gas. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Some important properties of p-block 1 Electron affinity Electron affinity increase from left to right along the period amongst the p — block elements and it decreases from top to bottom. Thanks for reading Chemistry notes for class 12 pdf download. The preparation should be in a manner which helps the students to concentrate more in areas which carry more marks. It is also present in bones and living cell. The s-orbital in these elements is completely filled and p-orbitals are half-filled, making their electronic configuration extra stable.
The valence shell electronic configuration of these elements is ns 2np 6. Diazonium salts:Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. In other words, the energy required to unpair the electrons is more than energy released in the formation of two additional bonds. Make a schedule for your revision and be realistic about it. Many discoveries were made by scientists — Hydrogen by Cavendish, Chlorine by Scheele and Carbon dioxide by Black. Chemicals in food — preservations, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.